Jurat (through French
from mediaeval Latin
swears," Lat. jurare, to swear) is the name given to that part of
containing the actual oath or affirmation.
In addition, the word can refer to the sworn
holders of certain offices.
English and United States law
In English and United States
law, the word jurat is applied to that part of an affidavit
which contains the
names of the parties swearing the affidavit, the actual statement
that an oath or affirmation has been made, the person before whom
it was sworn, the date, place and other necessary particulars. The
jurat is usually located on the bottom of a document. A typical
form would be "Sworn to before me this (blank) day of (blank),
20__," with the signature of the witness, often a notary
, the place, and sometimes other particulars.
Additionally, this term can be used for certain
electronic forms, (such as electronically filed tax returns in
certain states), where the taxpayer(s) attest to the truth of the
information contained. In the case of an electronically filed tax
return, the taxpayer has to provide certain specific information -
his social security number for example - to "sign" the jurat.
Having done this, the electronically submitted return is considered
to have the same legal effect as if the taxpayer had actually and
physically signed the return.
Under the ancien
, in several
towns, of the south-west, such as La Rochelle
jurats were members of the municipal body. The title was also borne
by officials, corresponding to aldermen
, in the
, but is now chiefly used as a title of office in the
There are two bodies, consisting each of twelve
jurats, for the bailiwick
s of Jersey
respectively. They form, with the Bailiff
presiding judge, the Royal Court
in each bailiwick. The Jurats, as lay people, are judges of fact
rather than law, though they preside over land conveyances and
Until the constitutional reforms introduced in
separate legislature and judiciary, they were elected for life, in
Jersey by islandwide suffrage, in Guernsey by the States of
Election, and were a constituent part of the legislative
Although no longer a political post, the office
of jurat is still considered the highest elected position to which
a citizen can aspire.
In Jersey, the power to raise excise duties was
exercised by the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats. These
financial powers, along with the assets of the Assembly, were
finally taken over by the States of
in 1921, thereby enabling the States to control the
budget independently of the
Lieutenant Governor of Jersey
. In 1948 the jurats were replaced
in the legislature by directly-elected senators. Jurats now serve
as non-professional judges until retirement (at 72) and are
indirectly elected by electoral
constituted of States Members and members of the legal
profession. The Royal Court sits either as the Inferior Number
(judge and two jurats) or the Superior Number (judge and at least
five jurats). Only the Superior Number can impose sentences of
imprisonment of more than four years. The Superior Number also acts
as a court of first appeal from the Inferior Number. Appeals from
the Superior Number are heard by the Court of Appeal in which
jurats do not sit.
The robes of jurats are red with black
List of Jurats of the Royal Court of JerseyIn order of
- Jurat John de Veulle OBE, Lieutenant Bailiff
- Jurat Sally Le Brocq, Lieutenant Bailiff
- Jurat John Tibbo
- Jurat Roy Bullen MBE
- Jurat John Le Breton
- Jurat Geoffrey Allo
- Jurat Jill Clapham
- Jurat Lorna King MBE
- Jurat Stan Le Cornu
- Jurat Peter Morgan
- Jurat Mary Newcombe
- Jurat John Liddiard
In Guernsey, the Jurats are still elected by the
States of Election, made up of the Island's judiciary, Law Officers
and Anglican clergy.
The Royal Court of Guernsey sits either as the
Ordinary Court (Bailiff or Deputy Bailiff and two jurats) or the
Full Court (Bailiff or Deputy Bailiff and seven jurats).
The robes of jurats are purple (although the
precise shade has varied).
The court of Alderney consists of six jurats
(appointed by the Crown) and a chairman.